In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. Smooth cordgrass spreads rapidly by rhizomatous roots. • The fungal community became more homogenized with the invasion. 0000005386 00000 n It out-competes many of the native species in these habitats and frequently invades mud flats and channels, converting them to marshlands. trailer 0000004129 00000 n It is native to the eastern United States, but is considered invasive, in salt marshes, in … %%EOF Spartina alterniflora invasion significantly decreased soil fungal richness. 0000008076 00000 n Culms (stems): Stems range in height from 60-250 cm (30-120 cm S. foliosa). 0000005609 00000 n 2. (Labr. 0000000892 00000 n Inflorescence: 10-40 cm long (9-25 cm S. foliosa) with dense colorless flowers. Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. 0 In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. Figure 3. ,l0\t8��tICCơ6��=8�z4�\�ڌ$�79��F�_q ���YI�HB)c���EG�=@���ȟ�%�X,����h�:A(BX�P!�����X�7�0]`S���`��4#dǵˌ�+,x/,�r�mPgx�x�y�_��pC ��R��o��8� m��hk� [ 6d`ԝ���W���֖1^��$ ς��� �f� � )AN ), N.S., P.E.I., Que., Maine, Md., Mass., Oreg. Zhenming Ge. Chinese mangrove ecosystems are vulnerable to the invasive species Spartina alterniflora (a perennial herb), which is native to North America and was introduced to China in 1979 to accelerate the deposition and stabilization of tidal flats [].In the past few decades, Spartina alterniflora has become one of the dominant species in the coastal wetlands in China due to its unique … S. alterniflora rhizome fragment survival over time for Willapa Bay plants.....5 Figure 2. alterniflora across the native range (Blum et al. Atlantic cordgrass. S. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass that grows initially in round, genetically similar, clumps ranging between 0.5-3m in height, eventually forming extensive monoculture meadows. Biological control using other natural enemy species from the native range of smooth cordgrass is an unlikely option in California because of the presence of the native California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) which would also be impacted. 0000007319 00000 n 264 0 obj <> endobj Spartina alterniflora which is identified on the plan as salt marsh. 0000002370 00000 n The microcosm has a 38-cm spring tide range, with a neap to spring high tide difference of 9cm. Shoreline protection may be characterized as “hard,” such as rock revetments, or “soft,” 0000010661 00000 n Culms to 250 cm tall, (0.3)5-15(20) mm thick, erect, solitary or in small clumps, succulent, glabrous, having an unpleasant, sulphurous odor when fresh. Pure S. alterniflora grows within the lower elevational marsh zones in its native range but, in San Francisco Bay, its hybrids with S. foliosa grow both below and above the range of that species. By 2017, the width of S. alterniflora was 1.88 km, the length was 12.90 km and the area was 3,925 ha. When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. smooth cordgrass. The tide on the Maine coast where samples were collected has a spring range of about 12 feet. 0000011514 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 292 0 obj <>stream Native Range: Newfoundland to lower St. Lawrence R., Que, s. to NJ; Locally naturalized in w Europe (Fernald 1950) Appearance Spartina alterniflora is a perennial grass that expands via underground rhizomes. S. alterniflora pollen has a relatively limited range (1 to 3 m), and the reproductive stems produce small seeds (2 to 5 mm) that are dispersed via the tides (Davis et al. A patch of Spartina alterniflora stubble at Middle Meadow. Status Stable Smooth cordgrass is a native perennial grass with flat, blade-like leaves. Together, our results suggested that tall- and short-form S. alterniflora can host their specific rhizosphere microbial communities and had different strategies of N usage via selecting the composition of rhizosphere bacterial assemblages, which in turn might determine the growth and invasiveness of S. alterniflora in its introduced range. %PDF-1.4 %���� • The fungal co-occurrence network was simplified with the invasion. Normile, D. 2004. We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. Additionally, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation service describes S. alternifloraas a grass with long hollow rhizomes. 0000002994 00000 n Download Full PDF Package. It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. conditions, but generally will range from 24” to 72.” Colonies tend to grow parallel to and continuous along shorelines; the width and thickness of a vegetative colony is controlled by a number of site-specific conditions such as elevation, shoreline-slope, and frequency, depth, and duration of flooding. It ranges from 2 to 7 feet tall and has leaf blades that are … However, the assembly processes and co … 2n = 62. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. This basic field guide illustrates the most common plants in Virginia’s tidal salt marshes where the salinity range 0000003766 00000 n S. alterniflora was established in the upper half of the neap range and S. patens in … A positive correlation between MTR and elevational growth range (r=0.91) demonstrated that the Spartina alterniflora zone expands with increasing tidal amplitude. GREAT ISLAND, WELLFLEET . It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. Exotic Spartina alterniflora has become widely distributed along most of the coastlines in China in a wide range of inundation frequencies. Download with Google Download with Facebook. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US. Spartina alterniflora var. 10 • Soil pH and salinity were the shaping factors in the fungal community structure. Range. It grows in low-lying, salt and brackish tidal marshes along the shores of the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay. Figure 4. <<5BBFF29AB3E31543A76073B1C2D79928>]>> In the native range of the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflorain the United States, soil nematode genus richness and diversity decreased with increasing latitude, with genus richness at lower latitudes being almost twice that at higher latitudes. Figure 1. 1916. Our native plant nursery also has many other species available throughout the year. Found along the shores of the middle and lower Chesapeake Bay and its tidal creeks and rivers. Create a free account to download. 3. Among invasive species, aquatic plants pose serious threats to local biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Science 306:968-969, https://bitbucket.org/aafc-mbb/fna-data-curation/src/2e0870ddd59836b60bcf96646a41e87ea5a5943a/coarse grained fna xml/V25/V25 854.xml, Copyright is held by the Flora of North America Association for all volumes except Volumes 24 and 25 (Poaceae). 2004). A narrow, unvegetated patch separates Spartina patens and tall form Spartina alterniflora near the mouth of the Herring River. 0000001276 00000 n endstream endobj 291 0 obj <>/Size 264/Type/XRef>>stream Flowering panicle made of many spikes, 0000009838 00000 n 0000025563 00000 n Leaf sheaths of S. alterniflora and hybrids may be various shades of maroon at the base of the culms (white-green of S. foliosa). We sampled vegetative and reproductive traits in the field at 20 sites over 20° latitude in China (invasive range) and 28 sites over 17° in … It thrives in mucky soil in full sun. Alaska Spartina Plan . S. alternifloracan spread vegetatively via under-ground rhizome expansion of individual clones, or it can reproduce sexually via wind-dispersed pollen. Spikelets 8-14 mm, straight, usually divergent, more or less equally imbricate on all the branches. 0000006522 00000 n List of Figures . Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. BASIONYM: Spartina glabra Muhlenberg ex Elliott 1816; Dactylis maritima Walter 1788, non Curtis 1787. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. The stems are hollow and hairless. Plants rhizomatous; rhizomes elongate, flaccid, white, scales inflated, not or only slightly imbricate. 0000004598 00000 n Spartina alterniflora Loisel. 0000008900 00000 n In its native range, decomposed smooth cordgrass provides an important source of food for crabs and other invertebrates and cordgrass marshes are nursery grounds for juvenile fishes and blue crabs. 0000001977 00000 n 2004, Travis et al. 0000001788 00000 n (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. endstream endobj 265 0 obj <>/Outlines 26 0 R/Metadata 55 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 54 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/OCGs[266 0 R]>>/StructTreeRoot 57 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20080703103602)/PageLabels 52 0 R>> endobj 266 0 obj <. THE GUT, WELLFLEET . glabra (Muhlenberg ex Elliott) Fernald, Rhodora 18: 178. Exposure to salt water is not a requirement for this species, but it will help produce healthier and longer living colonies. • Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. This narrow band stretches for approximately 0.25 miles. Copyright for Volumes 24 and 25 is held by Utah State University. 0000004879 00000 n One limitation of biogeographic studies of S. alterniflora within the native range is a lack of knowledge of geographic variation in reproductive biology. 0000003336 00000 n 0000014917 00000 n 2007; Hughes 2014), consistent with local adaptation. 0000001457 00000 n or. Sheaths mostly glabrous, throat glabrous or minutely pilose, lower sheaths often wrinkled; ligules 1-2 mm; blades to 60 cm long, 3-25 mm wide, lower blades shorter than those above, usually flat basally, becoming involute distally, abaxial surfaces glabrous, adaxial surfaces glabrous or sparsely pilose, margins usually smooth, sometimes slightly scabrous, apices attenuate. 0000005687 00000 n SPECIES: Spartina alterniflora GENERAL DISTRIBUTION : Smooth cordgrass is found along the eastern seaboard of North America from Newfoundland and Quebec to northern Florida, and in the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to southern Texas [ 24 , 27 ]. For an availability please contact us by phone or e-mail. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. Glumes straight, sides usually glabrous, sometimes pilose near the base or appressed pubescent, hairs to 0.3 mm; lower glumes 4-10 mm, acute; upper glumes 8-14 mm, keels glabrous, lateral veins not present, apices acuminate to obtuse, occasionally apiculate; lemmas glabrous or sparsely pilose, apices usually acuminate; paleas slightly exceeding the lemmas, thin, papery, apices obtuse or rounded; anthers 3-6 mm. startxref Panicles 10-40 cm, with 3-25 branches, often partially enclosed in the uppermost sheath; branches 5-15 cm, loosely appressed, not twisted, more or less equally subremote to moderately imbricate throughout the panicle, axes often prolonged beyond the distal spikelets, with 10-30 spikelets. x�b```b``�a`e`��� �� @16� +ux�x�xbrdf6 5t and Labr. Conn., N.J., N.Y., Wash., Del., Fla., N.H., Tex., La., N.C., S.C., Ala., Miss., R.I., Va., Calif., Ga., N.B., Nfld. Decaploid plants tend to be larger than octoploids, but they cannot be reliably distinguished without a chromosome count. 0000047827 00000 n Differences in MTR among marsh locations accounted for 70 and 68% of the statistical variation in the upper and lower limits, respectively, of S. alterniflora growth. x�bb2d`b``Ń3� �� ��� The velocity zone, where 3 foot waves are expected in storms, is seaward of the MHW as shown on the plan. 264 29 Spartina alterniflora (Smooth Cordgrass) is a species of marsh grass native to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, where it is considered a valuable plant making important contributions to the coastal ecology: Its dense growth provides protection against storm surge and “erosion control along shorelines, canal banks, levees, and other areas of… Spartina alterniflora is considered a serious threat to coastal ecosystems in Washington and California. glabra Spartina alterniflora Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, var. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. A process-based grid model for the simulation of range expansion of Spartina alterniflora on the coastal saltmarshes in the Yangtze Estuary. Spartina alterniflora is now a major weed problem in southeastern China (Normile 2004). Spartina alterniflora was introduced to the Yancheng coastal intertidal zone in 1979 (Xu et al., 1989), and a continuous area of S. alterniflora has formed since 2000. Spartina alterniflora is the dominant grass species found in coastal wetlands and along tidal shorelines of the eastern US. Spartina glabra Geographic subdivisions for Spartina alterniflora: CCo (San Francisco Bay) MAP CONTROLS 1. At Elders Point East the S. alterniflora upper limit and lower limit of the growth range in relation to Mean High Water (MHW) were 0.45 m and -0.32 m, respectively (Growth range … Locations of drift card release sites … Expanding trade with China creates ecological backlash. 0000005129 00000 n This indicates that tidal range has been increasing within the bay at the same rate with sea-leave rise (3.9 mm yr-1) since 2007. xref Spartina alterniflora . The native range of S.alterniflora, from Mexico in the Gulf of Mexico to Nova Scotia in North America, has a broad spectrum of abiotic conditions of temperature, growing degree Please see. The rhizomes and scales of S. alterniflora have large air spaces, presumably an adaptation to the anaerobic soils of its usual habitat. This paper. 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