Houses were made of wood. Caste System was slowly gaining its momentum. Dangers of insects and damage of crops through hail-storm very badly affected the land of kurus and compelled many people to migrate. Of the new kingdoms in the east, the most important were Kurus, Panchalas, Kasis, Kosalas and Videhas. The marriage rules became discriminating towards the bride. But the cultivator was not free from trouble. The merchants used to form guilds. The kshatriyas were the fighting class in the society. During this period, several tribal groups and kingdoms came into existence. In the divine persona of Rudra the traits of these deities seem to have been syncretized into one supreme god. They included the Bhagadugha (collector of taxes), the Suta (charioteer), the Akshavapa (superintendent of gambling), the kshattri (chamberlain), the Govikartana (king’s companion in the chase), the Palogala (courtier) the Takshan (Carpenter), the Rathakara (Chariot marker) in addition to the ecclesiastical and military officials like the Purohita (chaplain) the senani (general), and the Gramani (leader of host or of the village). The Upanishads (/ uː ˈ p æ n ɪ ˌ ʃ æ d z, uː ˈ p ɑː n ɪ ˌ ʃ ɑː d z / ; Sanskrit: उपनिषद् Upaniṣad [ˈʊpɐnɪʂɐd]) are late Vedic Sanskrit texts of religious teaching and ideas still revered in Hinduism. The merchants used this coin as unit of exchange. It was the advent of great Vedic Period . Those Aryans who still lived a nomadic life and were engaged in pasturing were regarded as fallen or Bratya, because they did not have a settled village life and they did not regularly perform the Yajna. The main settlement of the Rig Vedic people was the region of Indus and Saraswati Valleys. In the Later Vedic Period Gramani was both a civil and military officer Gramani was the medium through which the royal power was exercised in the village. According to Frasna Upanishada Adhikrita was the village officer and was lowest in the rank. Sudras: The Sudras were looked with contempt. So, with the change in the economy, political structure, and society, Religion also changed. Tapa means meditation, accompanying by physical tortures. But sometimes they were replaced by big landlords owning entire villages. A ‘Krishnala’ weighed one rati, i.e. By this rule the eldest son would inherit the property of the deceased father. But there is a marked tendency to maintain the purity of descent. Wheat was also cultivated. They were written down many centuries later, long after the “Vedic Age”, but much of what we know about this period of ancient Indian history is as a result of the faithful word-of-mouth transmission of the Vedas from one generation to another. He was considered impure. In the villages small peasant owners of land were replaced by big landlords who secured possession of entire villages. Later Vedic Period. Discuss the four Varnas of the later vedic period. Usuary and money lending was also practiced in this period. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. During the later Vedic period women lost much of their position and privileges enjoyed during early Vedic period. Later Vedic Period: (1000 BC – 600 BC) Region extent: » Aryans settlement covered virtually the whole Northern India during the later Vedic period. Iron underwent a long gestation. The Sudras were held in great contempt. Dowry system became popular. Women during the Later Vedic Period were looked as inferior in status. The Vedic Age was a significant era in Ancient Indian History. The Atharvaveda mentions about ‘Patninam Sadan’ (women’s apartment). Satamana was a gold coin equal to 100 krishnala. The students had to learn Vedas, Upanishad, grammar prosody, law, arithmetic and language. He had no right to enjoy property ownership. This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. And this led to the birth of Brahmanical Religion. The Aryans had also faith in the doctrine of Karma. But nishka was not ordinarily used. The Taittiriya Aranyakas refer about a special type of house known as ‘Dhandhani’ (treasure house). Several large Kingdoms grew during this period, and they kept fighting with each other. ADVERTISEMENTS: Therefore, it is necessary to analyse the status of Hindu women in the various ages to assess her real position today. The means of transport and communication developed with the growth of trade and commerce. They became masters of land and leaders of the Later Vedic society. They were further denied the rite of burning the dead body. People worshipped their male ancestors. There was a class of merchants called ‘Pani’ who controlled the trade. The Brahmanas retained a high standard of excellence and knew the details of the rituals. The sacrifices like Rajasuya and Asvamedha were performed to signify the imperial sway of monarchs over the rivals. This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Professions were not strictly hereditary. There are stray examples to prove that change of caste was not absolutely impossible. The king administered justice. Killing of cow was looked with disfavor. Caste System was slowly gaining its momentum. This was the time when agriculture became prevalent. This age had excelled in every walks of life. They also claimed to be twice born (Dwija). By their superior learning some kshatriyas raised themselves to the status of a Brahmana. Many famous tribes of Rig Vedic period like Bharatas, Parus, Tritsus and Turvasas passed into oblivion and new tribes like the Kurus and Panchalas rose into prominence. The land of the Yamuna and Ganga in the east which became the new home of the Aryans rose into prominence. The Brahmins had spread the belief that, “man is born with certain rinas or debts” which he must repay in his life. Arya is a Sanskrit word which means a person of noble birth or character, master, lord, preceptor, teacher, owner. The status and power of the Kshatriyas greatly increased due to constant war with the non-Aryans. The period that followed Rig Vedic Age is known as Later Vedic Age. In the later Vedic period Aryans settled in the region of Ganga-Yamuna. Various sub castes evolved in addition to the traditional four-castes. The earliest iron implements discovered in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Videha relate to the seventh century bc, and the metal itself is called shyama or krishna ayas. Sudras were shooed out from holy places like sacrificial altar. It is believed that their southern movement began during the period of Brahmana literature, about 1000 B.C. Usury and money-lending also developed in the Later Vedic Society Period. A vaishya is called tribute-paying, meant to be beaten and oppressed at will. The period that followed the Rig Vedic age is known as later Vedic period. Polygamy became more general. They lost their right of Upanayana and the right to perform religious rites and the right to join in political affairs. The purohitas (priests) prepared an elaborate system of ritualistic conduct; but the philosophers analysed the concept of good action. The worst position is reserved for the shudra. The Atharva Veda refers to both the Eastern and the Western Seas. As such, the questions from this topic have always been featured in the history segment of the UPSC Prelims.. War, conquest, administration of the kingdom was the principal duties of this class. appeared in the religious firmament of the Later Vedic Period. Main occupation was agriculture. Carpentry was yet a lucrative profession. The Kshatriya kings claimed divine sanction behind them. 500 bce): The principal literary sources from this period are the Sama-, the Yajur-, and the Atharvaveda (mainly ritual texts), the Brahmanas (manuals on ritual), and the Upanishads (Upanisads) and Aranyakas (collections of philosophical and metaphysical discourses). This age witnessed the composition of three later Veda Samhitas namely, the Samveda Samhita, the Yajurveda Samhita, the Atharvaveda Samhita as well as Brahmanas and the Upanishads of all the four Vedas and later on the two great epics—the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. He became the master of all subjects. In Later Vedic period, the position that the women folk enjoyed in the early Vedic society, was not retained. Vaishyas: The Arya-Vaishyas who were engaged in agriculture and trade were looked as inferior class during the period of Later Vedic Society. The house had many rooms with a special place for ‘Grahapatha’ fire which was kept continuously burning. 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