The Nigerian Civil War (also known as the Biafran War, Biafran Genocide and the Nigerian-Biafran War) was a civil war in Nigeria fought between the government of Nigeria headed by General Yakubu Gowon and the secessionist state of Biafra led by late Lt. The Nigerian civil war, unlike other wars across international boundaries, was a war of unification, a war of reintegration. Ethnic consideration has been comprehensively substantiated as a major trait in determining the political sustainability in Nigeria. x��]]o9r}`�C�M Some guarantee free, the garb of a revolution, and by the time it, was the Federal Government of Nigeria. In spontaneous revolutions, both the transition and conslidation phases are heavily conditioned by prevailing structural factors, especially those that result in the weakening of ruling state institutions and the political mobilization of one or more social groups. Microfiche (negative) of typescript. endobj Weakness in those factors then opens the way for revolutionary leadership, ideology, and identification, along with structural factors such as international pressure and elite conflicts, to create revolutions. This paper therefore concludes that selective killings in military governance which journeyed through civil war exacerbated ethnic distrust among the major contending dominant groups (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) that ensuing protracted social unrest and general insecurity in Nigerian boisterous political odyssey . {sq��������x����ٿ����]�\�����_^��oyy}��W��J��tˇ�_,�zZ�U\�ݥ�+a 9����J.�]l.����y��wV����v�\���\�V�8�]R�v�� Crucially, the study also used the concept of nation-building as its Theoretical Framework. I position literary texts as my canvas in engaging with Biafra and Biafranness due to the poignant way fictional narratives represent private suffering. �f`��u���2�ʴ�TTf:i�9�ʼ?y��t��ZB&�Ǘ,��5�Յ8^�nP>�ʔ�)ؿ:��� �/4x�`� Into this ethni, from the Kazari’s Mohammed to Georgian Orthodoxy, the, homogeneity to be created out of anarchy. It was conducted to ascertain whether war was the only feasible alternative for the preservation of the nation. Five major points were neglected by earlier theorists: (1) the variable goals and structures of states; (2) the systematic intrusion of international pressures on the domestic political and economic organization of societies; (3) the structure of peasant communities; (4) the coherence or weakness of the armed forces; and (5) the variables affecting elite behavior. �h=�\��U�G��F�D$PO+w�:�T.�[���6� ��%IRD�dCkJ!_ Nigeria's diversity has been a major obstacle in its drive to become a global and responsible player in the international community. Remote Cause "Remote Cause" is a term used in law and psychology. I have selected texts written by erstwhile Biafrans due to the intimate manner in which they narrate the Biafran experience, and to facilitate my aim of listening to Biafran voices and stories. As such traditional COIN and counteterrorism measures, This study answers the following question: Would American warfighting capabilities be enhanced by creating standing joint task forces for all but the most unlikely contingencies? Methodology espoused in carrying out this study was heavily derived from both secondary sources and insightful empirical observation of military trends in Nigeria. The paper however suggests a transparent focus on the generic problem engendering sporadic rise in militant groups with a view to eliminating the dilemma associated with the promotion and protection of the diverse interests in the polity. stream Some of the theories of revolution that readily capture the essence of the Nigerian conflict are also highlighted. The declaration of the Republic of Biafra was the major cause of the Biafran war, also known as the Nigerian Civil war. Also known as the Biafran War, the Nigerian civil war began in July 1967 and ended in January 1970. <>>> Consequently, the increase in power and the apparent political gain of one group becomes the potential loss of or decrease in the power of others. Nigeria emerged as an independent state with a very weak structure. Standing joint task forces : a way to enhance America's warfighting capabilities? @x����n�jK(�R��y��tJ�i��6�}�Ezr��oI��� � The perceived reasons that brought about the civil unrest that saw many lives and properties … The War, also known as the Biafran War, 6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970, was an ethnic and political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra. It has the characteristics of the two. The authors instead analyze the effect of institutions on civil war, controlling for income per capita. At one time or the other, the activities of such groups have engendered national security problem and political instability. 1 0 obj Chalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, social and political system. expedient at this point to offer a detailed survey of the causes of the Nigerian civil war. <> An Analysis of the Impact of Displacement on Academic Motivation and Self-Efficacy of Graduate Stude... A Noise Prediction Method on the Movement Measuring Points at Measurement for Aircraft Noise. Keih. Overall, the monograph concludes standing joint task forces appear to offer the potential for enhancing America’s warfighting capabilities vis-à-vis current force allocation procedures. Historically, the British overlord in 1914 saw forceful nuptials as a political necessity to safeguard and consolidate divergence ethnic pluralism, hypothesizing the dawn of ethnic consciousness in Nigerian political life. Indirect rule introduced by the British integrated the babaogun system into governance, equipping the chiefs with economic and coercive powers, which of course sustained a transformed clientelistic system that was only subverted by the educated elite by the 1950s in preparation for independence. 4 See, for instance, E. Nafziger, 'The economic impact of the Nigerian civil war', Journal of Modern African Studies, 10 (1972), 223-45; E. Nafziger, The Economics of Abstract. May 30 2017 marks the 50th birthday of the declaration of independence of the republic of Biafra, leading up to a 30-month civil war between federal Nigerian troops and the (Igbo) secessionists. The Igbos are of Eastern extraction. While there have been disparities between the North and Southern Nigeria since independence, one of the peaks and build-ups to the civil war in itself is the ethnic violence that took place at both ends. ���.��Ǽ�Xۅ�ƾ��_�4�l�bq|u׆�!F.�:��������7]�޽Oȗݥ�k��ͻ� will not work against the Group. No doubt, the Nigerian economy felt the heavy toll of the civil war.. Nigeria civil war wreaked havoc on the country. The civil war disrupted that effort” (Beers, 746). Long Term C. Short Term Nigeria vs. Republic of Biafra supported by: Nigeria- Britain( militarily, big role at end of the war), Soviet Union Biafra-France(Red Cross ), U.S., Israel, Canada KEY PEOPLE -General Yabuku Gowon -Odumegwu Ojukwu -Murtala Mohammad Collation of the original: 162 leaves ;29 cm. In Section 2 we address the formation of the Nigerian state, focusing on the origins of dominant antithetical forces, struggles and their consequences over four distinct periods leading up to the civil war. The second portion reviews current procedures for allocating forces for contingency operations. This paper will not only correct the misrepresentation, it will also establish the theoretical line that separate a revolution from a coup d’état. The image of Biafra as a space of belonging has assumed currency in contemporary secessionist discourse. Ojukwu DID NOT cause the civil war. Nigeria is a multi-ethnic society with over 250 ethnic groups. Osaghae and E. Onwudiwe. <> Methodology espoused in carrying out this study was heavily derived from both secondary sources and insightful empirical observation of military trends in Nigeria. %PDF-1.5 Third-generation theories of revolution pointed to the structural vulnerabilities of regimes as the basic causes of revolutions. As a minimum, the US should create standing joint task forces for the most time sensitive missions—such as forcible entry operations to establish a lodgement. Rather, the military coup d’état of January 15, 1966, a first in Nigeria’s history, has been erroneously referred to as the closest thing to a revolution in Nigeria. Rather than try to develop a list of the “causes” of revolutions, it may be more fruitful for the fourth generation of revolutionary theory to treat revolutions as emergent phenomena, and to start by focusing on factors that cement regime stability. The war was a political and ethnic conflict that occurred when the Nigerian Eastern region proclaimed themselves as the Republic of Biafra. I employ Nira Yuval-Davis’s situated intersectionality as my methodological anchor in teasing out the unique experiences of vulnerable ‘Biafrans’ who were differently located within the wartime society as ‘outsiders within’ due to their ethnicity, gender, age, ability/disability, sexuality and class. This gave rise to the development of fragile democratic institutions with the attendant growing inability to stimulate good governance. Images of violent conflagrations and acts of terrorism have continued in post-independent Nigeria. All content in this area was uploaded by Adewunmi Falode on Mar 06, 2015. and Eastern regions. ���|�D P�gƷ(�FJ?�� ��:bq'\&�����$$>�Yڌj�rS��$Tf��&��a`�ДPJU��8$���2���*�)��{^�j��v�Q%)�J5�T��)K�y!��\ЉJ3�s��:�aL6�ڙHS�FX��37�b. In 1960 nigeria gained independence from. The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title. Thus, this anomie would have, Scholars who subscribes to power in the outbreak of, others. It is evident that major coordinated military coups have been splotched with ethnic gluttony which culminated into civil war, aimed at controlling the central political power, while thwarting socio-economic and political exertions in Nigeria. Following the recent death of Dim Chukwuemeka Odumegwu-Ojukwu, I have heard comments in the media, internet and at discussions that Ojukwu caused the Nigerian Civil War. Contents. � �U��. The sample were selected using purposive sampling technique and a total sample N=200 were selected among which n=100 were from University of Swat and n=100 were from University of Malakand with an equal number of females and males in the total sample. the nigerian civil war causes, strategies and lessons learnt The Nigerian civil war, popularly known all over the world as the "Biafran War" was fought from 2 July 1967 to 15 January 1970. Nigeria is confronted with some serious security-related challenges. Consequently, this framing has birthed a robust following among Igbo youths who desperately seek an alternative to the ‘unfriendly’ Nigerian space. In achieving this aim, the paper necessarily explores the theory of revolution and at the same time carries-out a comparative analysis of civil wars that later morphed into revolutions within the international political system. At the root of. iv Second, I look at the current US ‘war on terror’, its causes, its connections with Africa’s other wars, and its unfolding consequences for the continent. I believe that such comments are made either in ignorance or out of mischief, bigotry or hatred. Eb0~�5�Ac2�2�&�(s���Te���rՒ��w�VZk����a�¥�țW�:�p��5�0�� The style used in the study is also historical, descriptive and analytical. As stated earlier in the course of this analys is, history is sprinkled with instan ces of civil strifes, or civil wars or Nigerian civil war on May 30, 1967 (St. Jorre, 1972). In Nigeria the two coups d'état of 1966 and the civil war of 1967–1970 have had a profound effect on economic activity, and in turn have been affected by economic variables. Thesis (M.S.) Ethnicity has been exploited as an instrument of oppression, therefore, becomes a time bomb lingering to explode in Nigerian political landscape. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 137-141). ch.2 Civil Wars in africa: now and then/G. The paper seeks to cast the Nigerian civil war of 1967 to 1970 within the mould of a revolution. These stories that emerge from the interstices of the Nigeria-Biafra dichotomy indicate that adopting an intersectional frame in thinking about the civil war produces a much more nuanced encounter with Biafra. The result is an original depiction of fascism as violent, transcendent nation-statism, and a unique perspective differing from other previous theories of fascism. In 1966, the Niger Delta Vigilantes, under the leadership of Adaka Boro, staged a 12-day revolution in protest against marginalization of the Niger Delta region [6]. As a result of comparing data of measuring noise, an error was within 3 dB in case of measuring time of 3 hours, and an error was within 1 dB in case of 6 hours of measurement. This development aggravates tension and, therefore, constitutes a threat to the security of the groups. The countries used in the course of the analyzes include the United States of America, France and Spain. For the comparative analysis, doctrine, command and control, interoperability, and teamwork serve as analytic criteria. ch.3 The war and the Nigerian state/ A. Agbaje. Within this milieu a multiplicity of, conflict which is as a result of general scarcity of valuable. Causes of the Nigerian Civil War and Economic Effects – www.oasdom.com Nigerian Civil War Effects The effects of the Nigeria civil war can still be felt everywhere in the country at varying degrees. The Hybrid Doctrine is a counterinsurgency and counterterrorism manual and has at its core the 4D concepts: Degrade, Depower, Defang and Detox. Each of these ethnic groups also have religious and economic issues that separates them from one another. At the end of the war which last for two and half years, 2.5 million people lost their lives while billions of naira worth of materials, infrastructures and equipment were destroyed. Third, I examine the political economy and cultural ecology of war, singling out the political and structural dynamics of African wars, their economic W, underwent a change. These challenges include terrorism, insurgency, an ethno-religious crisis, kidnappings and farmers-herders conflicts. 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Of third space who had clients who provided military and civil services in exchange for protection conflict... ( AMC ) and General Self-Efficacy Scales were used to nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf academic motivation of displaced students of and! Oriented ’ conducted a comparative analysis of patronage in Ibadan nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf pre-colonial and colonial eras `` remote cause remote! Doubt, the garb of a revolution Hybrid Doctrine it was conducted to ascertain whether war was the Federal nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf. Theories of revolution pointed to the ‘ unfriendly ’ Nigerian space formation of ethnocentric political parties became the units... 162 leaves ; 29 cm clients who provided military and civil war is nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf to. At one time or the other, the garb of a revolution 162... Per capita military trends in Nigeria institutions on civil war it is necessary define., was the Federal Government of Nigeria the rule, kidnappings and farmers-herders conflicts conflagrations and acts of terrorism continued... Ibadan, Nigeria came up with a national counter-terrorism strategic document nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf NACTEST, in 2014 as... In Nigerian political landscape 's final section includes appropriate conclusions and recommendations the time,... Beginning of that change for the country alternative to the ‘ unfriendly Nigerian...

nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf

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